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INTRODUCTION Thinking with Deleuze in qualitative research Lisa A. Mazzeia * and Kate McCoyb a Department of Leadership Studies, Gonzaga University, 502 E. Boone Avenue, Spokane, WA 99258-2616, USA; b Department of Educational Studies, State University of New York at New Paltz, 800 Hawk Drive, New Paltz, NY 12561, USA Taylor and Francis TQSE_A_500634.sgm (Received 7 June 2010; final version received 9 June 2010) 10.1080/09518398.2010.500634 International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 0951-8398 (print)/1366-5898 (online)
Introduction 2010 Taylor & Francis 235000000September 2010 Dr LisaMazzei firstname.lastname@example.org
‘This special issue that we are calling, ‘Thinking with Deleuze in qualitative research’, presents writings from qualitative researchers across various disciplines and contexts who are attempting to work with these new analytics and practices made possible through their engagement with Deleuzian concepts and processes. These researchers engage epistemological questions and try out methodological practices inspired by thinking with Deleuze in qualitative research. In response to our call for proposals, contributors to this issue are using or thinking with the philosophical concepts and processes of Deleuze, not focusing on them in the abstract, but instead engaging the implications of those concepts and processes for research methodology and ethics in educational research. Keywords: Deleuze and Guattari; qualitative research; methodology.’
Deleuze’s work is characterized not by a fidelity to any master, but by a series of transformations of concepts borrowed from a range of writers from many disciplines. (Tomlinson and Habberjam 1991, 9)
‘In writing of what she terms a ‘(post)critical feminist methodology’, Patti Lather (2007) urges us to ask questions about the limits of our research practices and the kinds of knowledge production enabled and disabled by them. We should try ‘to grasp what is on the horizon in terms of new analytics and practices of inquiry’ (2007, 1). She maintains that aiming for such a post-methodology must shift the debate away from ‘tired epistemological contests’ (Lather 2007) toward an examination of ‘how a discipline works toward creating new phenomena’ (70). As such, the authors in this special issue of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education are not arguing one epistemological position against another, nor are they attempting to ‘get Deleuze right’, but are straining meanings and representations that may emerge through a rigorous engagement with the work of Deleuze and Guattari toward transformations of research practices and knowledge. In this time of researching situations that we no longer understand, ‘situations which we no longer know how to react to, in spaces which we no longer know how to describe’ (Deleuze 1985/1989, xi), we are hopeful that these writings begin the process of creating a forum for thinking with Deleuze that might help us create a language and a way of thinking that are up to the task.’ [pp 503-504]
‘Deleuze urges that we not: ‘forget that [repetition] is a vertiginous movement endowed with a force: not one which causes the return of the Same in general, but one which selects, one which expels as well as creates, destroys as well as produces’ (Deleuze 1968/2004, 12). Through this repetition, selection, expulsion, creation, destruction, and production, this work might move toward realizing Deborah Britzman’s hope that educational research become ‘unintelligible to itself’ (see Lather 2007, 174n3), that it be a ‘mode of thought that refuses to secure itself with the consolations of foundationalism and nostalgia for presence, the lost object of correct knowledge, the security of understanding’ (Lather 2009, 18). Such thought – and research – interrupts our proclivities toward the easily understood, positing ‘not being understood as an ethical imperative’, in efforts to interrupt knowledge production that ‘maps2 easily onto taken-for-granted regimes of meaning’ (Lather 2007, 85).’ [p 505]
‘The trick is to fashion a map that ‘is detachable, reversible, susceptible to constant modification’, one with ‘multiple entryways’ that produces encounters that come up against and move through these blockages, inhibiting a return to ‘the same’ (1980/1987, 13–14).’ [p 506]
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“The objective of this research is to identify the relationship between formal learning spaces and student learning outcomes. Using a quasi-experimental design, researchers partnered with an instructor who taught identical sections of the same course in two radically different formal learning environments to isolate the impact of the physical environment on student learning. The results of the study reveal that, holding all factors excepting the learning spaces constant, students taking the course in a technologically enhanced environment conducive to active learning techniques outperformed their peers who were taking the same course in a more traditional classroom setting. The evidence suggests strongly that technologically enhanced learning environments, independent of all other factors, have a significant and positive impact on student learning.”
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‘This article critically reviews the methodologies and methods that have been used for the evaluation of physical learning environments. To contextualize discussion about the evaluation of learning spaces, we initially chart the development of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) for non-domestic buildings. We then discuss the recent evolution of POE into the broader evaluative framework of building performance evaluation. Subsequently, a selection of approaches used to evaluate higher education and school learning environments are compared and critically analyzed in view of contemporary approaches to teaching and learning. Gaps in these evaluative approaches are identified and an argument is put forward for the evaluation of physical learning environments from a more rigorous pedagogical perspective.’ [Abstract]
‘Renewed interest in progressive and constructivist approaches to education have encouraged people to re-examine their assumptions not only about educational provision across all sectors, but also about how best to design and use space for pedagogical activities (Cleveland 2009, 2011; Fisher 2002, 2004, 2005; Jamieson et al. 2005; Radcliffe et al. 2008). Interest in pedagogies that have been informed by the notions associated with experiential learning (Dewey 1966, 1971), critical pedagogy (Friere 1970), situated learning (Lave and Wenger 1991), authentic learning (Newmann 1992), interdisciplinary learning (Beare 2000) and the development of democratic citizens (McLaren 2007) has began to reframe people’s attitudes towards the spaces in which students learn.’ [p 7]
‘The research project also investigated a variety of data-collection methods. In addition to ‘‘typical survey methods’’ (Lee and Tan 2011, p. 10), the report suggested that researchers were ‘‘seeking creative methods to gather data that provide[d] the best fit for the questions at hand’’ (Lee and Tan 2011, p. 10). Some of the ‘creative methods’ that were indentified included observational studies, video and protocol studies, diaries, movement tracking and group activities. The report suggested that, although the use of diverse methods might support data collection that could lead to new understandings about the learning/space nexus, this might also be problematic because few tools were likely to be used in more than one context, or tested in multiple evaluations over time (Lee and Tan 2011).’ [p 13]
‘… a lack of resourcing dedicated to comprehensive evaluations; sensitivity of evaluation processes and findings; a tendency to present spaces positively and without contextual information; limitations in understanding about the purpose and value of evaluation; limiting assumptions about the potential for input from a variety of stakeholders; and the complex nature of evaluation itself.’ [p 14]
Sanoff (2001) also outlined a process that he termed Relating Objectives to Learning to Education (ROLE). ROLE was intended to support pedagogical transformation by involving teachers, students, parents, administrators and designers in ‘‘exploring aspects of the school environment by considering alternative approaches to teaching and learning’’ (p. 23).
‘Sanoff’s contribution to the field of learning environment evaluation shifted the focus of building evaluation in education towards interest in evaluating how learning environments could be used to support pedagogical activities.’ [p 16]
‘The creation of innovative learning environments in higher education settings in particular appears to have encouraged researchers to search for novel evaluation methodologies and methods that can be used to assess the effectiveness of educational facilities in supporting the learning process. This renewed interest in evaluation at the intersection of the physical and the social represents a return to the origins of POE in environmental psychology. It also supports Preiser and Nasar’s (2008) view that a new perspective on building evaluation is currently being developed that favours ‘bottom up’ approaches to evaluation, which value the opinions of the user.’ [p 28 conclusion]
See also: The Emerging Importance of the Affective in Learning Environment Evaluations https://bit.ly/2JSOg27 [last accessed 20.06.2018]
‘Nevertheless, Hargreaves and Fullan (2013) argue that transforming teaching requires building professional capital, a process that is far more complex than data driven models of building business capital. Leadership for transformative change in teaching will be, they say, “a judicious mixture of push, pull, and nudge” (p. 39). The E21LE project hopes to influence the push, pull and nudge factors of pedagogical change through developing frameworks and strategies for evaluation that align practice and space.’ [p 12]
‘There are two common purposes in educational evaluation, which at times are in conflict with one another. Educational institutions often require evaluation data to (1) demonstrate various forms of effectiveness to funders and other stakeholders, (2) provide a measure of performance for marketing purposes and (3) to inform evidence-based policy development. Evaluation in this context is also a professional activity that individual educators may undertake if they intend to review and enhance the learning they are endeavouring to facilitate. Yet, the use of evaluation to drive transformative change in education is highly vexed, particularly in the higher education sector where universities value academic freedom and professional development is largely carried out through conferences and peer-to-peer networks. Any form of top-down organised transformation is hotly contested and indeed commonly resisted or corrupted. To a degree, this is true in schools as well, as teacher professional development is often left to the individual and there is often little compunction for teachers to change the way they practice.’ [pp 12-13]
‘Evaluations can be industry or academe lead. In the realm of evaluating learning environments this can promote evaluations that have a high orientation to objective/ technical aspects (such as post occupancy evaluation in architecture) or those that have a high orientation to abstract/qualitative aspects (such as measures of learning outcomes in education). Certainly, previous approaches to post occupancy evaluations of learning spaces have been less concerned with pedagogy and more focussed on issues related to indoor environment quality, construction and building quality. Conversely, what is often evaluated within pedagogical practice is not only quite varied, but contested in terms of what practices are most highly valued, and rarely if ever do these evaluations cover the places and spaces for learning.’ [p 13]
See also: Educause Learning Space Rating System at: https://bit.ly/2kPgQ6y
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‘If an institution desires more than a facelift or an iconic new building, it should clearly articulate its learning objectives and then place a high priority on including curriculum redesign in the planning process for new learning spaces. Faculty who are genuinely engaged in pedagogy, along with others who are concerned with the teaching and learning aspects of the space, should play a central, not peripheral, role in planning groups. An institution that is serious about making changes in pedagogy, whether or not those changes include technology, should consider the kinds of motivation that faculty might respond to–from an internal grant program for curriculum redesign, to an increase in instructional technologists or other staff, to more frequent or timely workshops, to more reliable day-to-day support for classroom technologies. In addition, a unit or group should be tasked with assessing what is or is not working in the new learning spaces after they are occupied–and with making recommendations for changes.
All of this necessitates a serious investment of resources. In these difficult economic times, administrators at many institutions will likely want to see demonstrable returns on these investments. They may want some evidence that the investments, particularly in classroom technology, are being employed in the ways the planners anticipated and that the investments are creating some improvements in teaching and learning. Faculty may welcome opportunities to rethink their teaching style and the way in which they achieve their learning objectives if the proper supports are put in place. Ideally, with new or renovated learning spaces, formal and informal, all stakeholders can win: faculty can enhance their teaching, students can improve their learning, and administrators can proudly point to the positive results of their investments in physical facilities, new technologies, and support services.’ [pp 24-25]
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‘Royle makes a similar point about the positive value of dwelling within states of uncertainty. Intellectual uncertainty is not necessarily or simply a negative experience, a dead-end sense of not knowing, or of indeterminacy. It is just as well an experience of something open, generative, exhilarating, (the trembling of what remains undecidable). I wish to suggest that ‘intellectual uncertainty’ is … a crucial dimension of any teaching worthy of the name. (Royle 2003, 52)’ [p 20]
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